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References &

Acupuncture and Chinese medicine has been studied, discussed, and debated over for at least 2500 years. This is merely a sampling of the translated and original extensive scientific, scholarly, and historical documentation available.



[1] Unschuld, P. U. (2016). Chapter 13: The Conduits and their Sinews. In Huang di Nei Jing Ling Shu - the ancient classic on needle therapy (pp. 225–238). University Of California Press.


[2] Liu, Shenbin, et al. A Neuroanatomical Basis for Electroacupuncture to Drive the Vagal–Adrenal Axis. Nature, 2021,

[3] Langevin, H. M., & Yandow, J. A. (2002). Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes. The Anatomical Record, 269(6), 257–265.


[4] Kim, S. K., & Bae, H. (2010). Acupuncture and immune modulation. Autonomic Neuroscience, 157(1-2), 38–41.

[5] Duan-Mu, C.-L., Zhang, X.-N., Shi, H., Su, Y.-S., Wan, H.-Y., Wang, Y., Qu, Z.-Y., He, W., Wang, X.-Y., & Jing, X.-H. (2021). Electroacupuncture-induced muscular inflammatory pain relief was associated with activation of low-threshold mechanoreceptor neurons and inhibition of wide dynamic range neurons in spinal dorsal horn. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 15.

[6] Unschuld P. Medicine in China. A History of Ideas. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985 57– 8.


[7] World Health Organization (2003). Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials. Geneva: World Health Organization,

Herbal Medicine


[1] Some of the companies I regularly use are:


[2] Chen, J. K., & Chen, T. T. (2009). Chinese herbal formulas and applications: Pharmacological effects & clinical research. Art of Medicine Press.

[3] How long have humans used botanicals? Taking Charge of Your Health & Wellbeing. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2021, from

[4] Wilms, S. (2016). The divine farmer's classic of materia medica: Shen Nong Bencao jing. Happy Goat Productions.


[5] Yuan, H., Ma, Q., Ye, L., & Piao, G. (2016). The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products. Molecules, 21(5), 559.

[6] For examples on herbal medicine sometimes being more gentle and successful then modern drugs- there is a wealth of scholarly information. A good starting point would be a search on pubmed for the complex herbal constituent berberine (  or as common as garlic (




Consulting this 3 part 1000+ page monograph on Salvia Miltiorrhiza:


Yan, X. (2015). Dan Shen (Salvia Miltiorrhiza) in medicine volumes 1,2,3. biology and Chemistry. Springer.




Stephen Harrod Buehner’s book Herbal Antibiotics and/or Herbal Antivirals - entertaining, scholarly, reference and information rich reads:


[1] Kawanami H, Kawahata H, Mori HM, Aoki M. Moxibustion Promotes Formation of Granulation in Wound Healing Process through Induction of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Rats. Chin J Integr Med. 2020 Jan;26(1):26-32. doi: 10.1007/s11655-019-3083-x. Epub 2019 Nov 28. PMID: 31776965.


[2] Deng H, Shen X. The mechanism of moxibustion: ancient theory and modern research. Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Med. 2013;2013:379291. doi: 10.1155/2013/379291. Epub 2013 Sep 12. PMID: 24159344; PMCID: PMC3789413.


[3] Jin H, Feng Y, Xiang Y, Zhang Y, Du W, Wasan HS, Ruan S, Huang D. Efficacy and Safety of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Therapy on Chemotherapy-Induced Leukopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. vidence Based Complementary Alternative Med. 2020 Oct 30;2020:5691468. doi: 10.1155/2020/5691468. PMID: 33178318; PMCID: PMC7647756.


[4] Unschuld, Paul. Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: nature, knowledge, imagery in an ancient Chinese medical text. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press; 2003:314-315.


[5] Schlaeger JM, Stoffel CL, Bussell JL, Cai HY, Takayama M, Yajima H, Takakura N. Moxibustion for Cephalic Version of Breech Presentation. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2018 May;63(3):309-322. doi: 10.1111/jmwh.12752. Epub 2018 May 18. PMID: 29775226.

Gua Sha


[1] Nielsen, A. (2014). Gua Sha: A traditional technique for modern practice. Churchill Livingstone.


[2] Kwong, K. K., Kloetzer, L., Wong, K. K., Ren, J.-Q., Kuo, B., Jiang, Y., Chen, Y. I., Chan, S.-T., Young, G. S., & Wong, S. T. C. (2009). Bioluminescence imaging of heme oxygenase-1 upregulation in the Gua Sha procedure. Journal of Visualized Experiments, (30).

[3] Chan, S.-tak, Yuen, J. W. M., Gohel, M.-D. I., Chung, C.-ping, Wong, H.-cheong, & Kwong, K. K. (2011). Guasha-induced hepatoprotection in chronic active hepatitis B: A case study. Clinica Chimica Acta, 412(17-18), 1686–1688.

[4] Yuen, J. W. M., Tsang, W. W. N., Tse, S. H. M., Loo, W. T. Y., Chan, S.-T., Wong, D. L. Y., Chung, H. H. Y., Tam, J. K. K., Choi, T. K. S., & Chiang, V. C. L. (2017). The effects of Gua Sha on symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers associated with chronic low back pain: A randomized active-controlled crossover pilot study in elderly. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 32, 25–32.



[1] Chi LM, Lin LM, Chen CL, Wang SF, Lai HL, Peng TC. The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Evidence Based Complementary Alternative Med. 2016;2016:7358918. doi: 10.1155/2016/7358918. Epub 2016 Mar 17. PMID: 27073404; PMCID: PMC4814666.


[2] Hasan I, Ahmad T, Ahmad S. Management of hypertension
by wet cupping therapy (Al-Hijamah): a case study
. Int J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014; 4(1): 24–27


[3] Wang, Yun-Ting, et al. The Effect of Cupping Therapy for Low Back Pain: A Meta-Analysis Based on Existing Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, vol. 30, no. 6, 2017, pp. 1187–1195.,

[4}Ye XF, Zhang HF, Pang ZW. [Therapeutic effects of common cold of wind-cold type at early stage treated by different cupping duration]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2011 Apr;31(4):357-9. Chinese. PMID: 21528605.




[7] Naseem Akhtar Quersh, Gazzaffi Ibrahim Ali, Tamer Shaban Ahmed Tawfik El-Olemy, Meshari Saleh Alqaued, Ibrahim S. El Subai, Abdullah M.N. Al bedah, History of cupping(Hijama): a narrative review of literature, Journal of Integrative Medicine volume 15, Issue 3

Recommended reading


On understanding Chinese Medical science

One of the best ways to learn about Chinese medicine, is to study the philosophy and books influenced by its philosophy. These are some recommendations of texts that capture the sophisticated systems thinking that informs the ancient science of Chinese medicine.

A good translation of the Dao De Jing (Tao De Ching) and the Yi Jing (I Ching) are some of the best starting points:

Lao-tzu, Ames, R. T., & Hall, D. L. (2004). Daodejing: "making this life significant: A philosophical translation. Ballantine Books.

Roberts, M., & Laozi. (2019). Dao De Jing: The book of the way. University of California Press.

Christensen, L. B. (2015). Book of changes: The original core of the I ching. Lars Bo Christensen.

Wilhelm, R., & Baynes, C. F. (1997). The I ching: Or, Book of changes. Princeton University Press.


Mansanobu Fukuoka books on farming are some of the best treaties on applying classical Chinese medical philosophy:

Fukuoka, M. (2009). One Straw Revolution. New York Review.

These two books written by westerners without actually being Chinese medical philosophy books  capture something of its essence:

Abram, D. (2011). Becoming animal: An earthly cosmology. Vintage Books.

Buhner, S. H. (2014). Plant Intelligence and the Imaginal Realm: Beyond the doors of perception into the dreaming earth. Bear & Company.


Chinese Medical History:

Lihong, L., Fruehauf, H., & Weiss, G. (2019). Classical chinese medicine. The Chinese University Press.

Unschuld, P. U. (1997). Medicine in China: A history of ideas. University of California Press.

Deep dive into Chinese Medical Classics:

The best way to grasp Chinese medicine is to study the classical texts which still have clinical relevance today. There are many authors working in translation today. I whole heartedly recommend the following authors and translators

Dr. Sabine Wilms:

Wilms, S. (2016). The divine farmer's classic of materia medica: Shen Nong Bencao jing. Happy Goat Productions.


Wilms, S. (2018). Humming with elephants: The great treatise on the resonant manifestations of yin and Yang: A translation and discussion of chapter five of the yellow emperor's inner classic plain questions.  Sabine Wilms. Happy Goat Productions.

Dr. Paul Unschuld:

Unschuld, P. U. (2016). Huang di Nei Jing Ling Shu - the ancient classic on needle therapy. University Of California Press.

Bianque, Unschuld, P. U., Bianque, & Bianque. (2016). Nan Jing: The classic of difficult issues: With commentaries by Chinese and Japanese scholars from the third through the twentieth century. University of California Press.

Tessenow, H., Unschuld, P. U., & Zheng, J. (2011). Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: An annotated translation of Huang Di's inner classic -- basic questions. University of California Press.


Acupuncture & Applied Channel Theory:

Dr. Wang Ju-Yi and his apprentices heavily influence the type of acupuncture I use. This particular text sums up the methodology. 


Wang, J.-Y., & Robertson, J. D. (2008). Applied Channel Theory in chinese medicine: Wang Ju-Yi's lectures on Channel Therapeutics. Eastland Press



Wilcox, L. (2013). Moxibustion: A modern clinical handbook. Blue Poppy Press.


General Introduction to Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture:


As acupuncture and Chinese medicine is a board subject, it is difficult to find a single book that covers its cross millennial and cultural significance. These are both thoughtful, general introduction of the theories:


Mole, P. (2014). Acupuncture for body, mind and spirit. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.


Felt, B., & Birch, S. (1998). Understanding acupuncture. Churchill Livingstone. (

Chinese Herbs
Gua Sha
Recommended Reading
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